La Maison des Cultures du Monde rendra hommage au Professeur Trần Văn Khê le 26 novembre 2015 à 19h.
" Rendre hommage à la mémoire du Professeur Tran Van Khê est un devoir que la Maison des cultures du monde se doit d’accomplir. Elle le fait par admiration et respect pour cet éminent musicologue qui lui a fait l’honneur de son attention et de sa collaboration. Elle le fait aussi par amitié, celle qui lie les passionnés de découverte et de connaissance des cultures du monde.
Lui rendre hommage c’est aussi rendre hommage à l’ouverture, à la générosité du musicologue toujours soucieux de « donner », de faire connaître, jamais avare de son savoir.
Ses amis, ses collègues, ses disciples présenteront films et documents sonores et témoigneront de l’œuvre du grand érudit disparu ".
"Le professeur Tran Van Khê et la Maison des Cultures du Monde, des années de complicité"
par Chérif Khaznadar, président de la Maison des Cultures du Monde.
"Quelques repères dans la vie de mon père"
par Tran Quang Hai, ethnomusicologue (CNRS), musicien.
"Un homme à l’écoute des Autres"
par Simha Arom, ethnomusicologue, directeur de recherches émérite au CNRS.
"Portrait du professeur Tran en mandarin merveilleux
par François Picard, ethnomusicologue, professeur des universités et Yvonne Duong, doctorante en ethnomusicologie vietnamienne.
"Le professeur Tran Van Khê dans l’aventure du Centre d’Études de Musique Orientale"
par Cheng Shui Cheng, ethnomusicologue (CNRS).
"Tran Van Khê, passeur de musiques et messager de paix"
(Extraits du film de Ho Thuy Tien présentés par la réalisatrice).
Performance musicale de đờn ca tài tử par Tran Quang Hai et Bach Yen.
Hommage à un homme de lumière : le Pr. Trân Van Khê
Jeudi 26 novembre 2015 à 19h
Maison des Cultures du Monde
101 boulevard Raspail
Entrée libre dans la limite des places disponibles.
Cette double gourde mise en vente à Brive la Gaillarde est une production caractéristique des fours de Bát Tràng au 19e siècle. En terre gréseuse, il est revêtu d'une couverte ivoirine et porte un décor peint en cobalt, composé d'un bambou près d'un rocher (sur le corps de la pièce), deux feuilles au niveau du col et de méandre.
Bouteille en grès, Vietnam, col cerclé, H 24 cm
Vente Brivenchères SARL
Brive la Gaillarde, 22 novembre 2015
Est. 150 / 200 €
En 1889, l’empereur Thành Thái (1889-1907) décida de créer un ordre, le kim bội (« Bijou en or ») pour récompenser les femmes méritantes. D’où la présence de phénix comme décoration et l'inscription Quỳnh dao vĩnh hảo 瓊搖永好 ("Objet similaire au rubis et au jade pour servir de souvenir éternel").
Si, officiellement, il existe trois classes, les empereurs d’Annam n’ont accordé que la première classe. On distingue dans cette classe, deux degrés : la plaque du premier degré, en or, est plus grande et de forme plus ronde, pesant 22,67 gr tandis que celle du second degré est en vermeil, de forme oblongue et pesant 15,10 gr.
En or estampé à décor de dragons et d idéogrammes, biface. Avec suspente en fil rouge et enrichi sur le dessous d une pampille enrichie de perles multicolores, de fils doré et orange.
Poids brut : 18 g - 6 x 4 cm
Vente Ader-Nordmann et Ader SVV
Paris, Drouot, 30 novembre 2015
Est. 1000 / 1200 €
Comme peintre de la Marine, Gaston Roullet (Ars-en-Ré, 15.11.1845-7 – Paris, 02.12.1925) se rendit à Huế en septembre 1885. Le docteur Hocquard note dans Une campagne au Tonkin (Paris, Arléa, 1999): « J'ai trouvé à Haï-Phong un gai compagnon de voyage : Gaston Roullet, peintre du ministère de la Marine, qui se rend en Annam et qui m'accompagnera dans toutes mes excursions. C'est une excellente recrue que ce brave artiste, le premier qui ait osé risquer le pied dans notre nouvelle colonie. Grâce à lui, j'ai passé des heures charmantes et, pendant tout ce voyage pénible, je n'ai pas eu un seul instant d'ennui » (pp. 556-557). Pendant que Hocquart prenait des photographies des lieux traversés, de Tourane (Đà Nẵng) à Huế, Roullet « croque d'un crayon rapide les points de vue pittoresques qui passent à sa portée » (pp. 562-563) ; d'où les surnoms que lui donnèrent les vietnamiens : Ong quan ké bout [ông quan cái bút] soit « le mandarin Pinceau » pour Roullet et Ong quan ké Dên [ông quan cái đèn], « le mandarin Lanterne » pour Hocquard. Durant ce séjour, lors d'une audience accordée par l'empereur Đồng Khánh, l'artiste sollicita de réaliser le portrait du souverain. Cette séance fut relaté par Hocquard : « Ce n'est pas chose facile que de faire le portrait d'un roi d'Annam ; à chaque instant, le royal modèle se dérobe pour venir juger de l’œuvre de mon ami, et puis, cette robe jaune est impossible à reproduire : les couleurs les plus vives de la palette n'arrivent pas à la rendre ; d'ailleurs Roullet a des distractions ; on entend chuchoter derrière les paravents qui masquent l'entrée du sérail ; des yeux curieux regardent à travers les fentes de cette mince cloison et des rires étouffés partent de tous les coins. Le roi fatigué lève la séance au bout de dix minutes. Roullet promet qu'il achèvera le tableau à la légation, de souvenir et d'après mes photographies, et qu'il l'enverra ensuite au palais » (p. 635).
Le choix du bastion de Mang Cá n'est pas pas purement fortuit mais politique. En effet, le traité de Patenôtre, signé le 06 juin 1884, concéda à la France les deux bastions situés dans l'angle Nord-Est de la citadelle de Huế, le trấn Bình Đồng, aussi connu sous le nom de Đồng Mang Cá. Politiquement, cette concession était un geste symbolique d'une grande importance. En effet, pour la première fois, une armée étrangère s'établissait dans l'enceinte même de la Cité Impériale.
Gaston Roullet (1847-1925)
« Le Manca - Hué », 1885
Aquarelle et encre sur papier, 19.5 x 45.5 cm,
Signée et datée en bas à gauche « Gaston Roullet / Le MANCA – Hué / 1XX5 »
Une inscription en bas à droite suivie de la signature de E. Detaille.
Vente tableaux XIXe
Dimanche 6 décembre, Barbizon
Est. 600 / 800 €
Trading antiques in Vietnam – Part 4: Almost impossible to tell real items from fakes (Tuoi Tre News, 27/09/2015).
Nguyen Xuan Yen and a genuine ceramic bowl antique formerly used during the Nguyen dynasty in Vietnam. Tuoi Tre
A debate over the genuineness of a batch of ceramic antiques, including dishes and bowls, has been ongoing in the central province of Thua Thien-Hue for the past decade.
It is claimed that the items were used in a royal palace of the Nguyen Dynasty over a century ago.
However, no one has ever been able to confirm whether the items are real or fake.
In the world of lovers of antiques in Hue City, the capital of the province, many still say the batch, which is kept at the Thua Thien-Hue Museum of History and Revolution, is authentic.
In the meantime, others have asserted that it is simply counterfeit.
Bogus or real?
One evening in 2001, Nguyen Xuan Yen was about to close his antique shop, located at 51 Le Loi Street in Hue. Then a young man entered and watched his antiques displayed in glass cabinets for a while and left. The young man returned the following day with a big bag on his shoulder. He smiled to greet the shop owner, Yen, and offered a special batch of 11 ceramic dishes and bowls. He said he came from the northern province of Nam Dinh and sold the batch for his relative back home. The ceramic dishes and bowls were said to be owned by a royal descent, previously residing in a locality along the Tam Giang Lagoon, and sent home by former queen mother Tu Du. Seen with the naked eye, the seeming antiques were surprisingly beautiful and alluring. Yen had dreamed of the items long before. They included nine tea dishes and two bowls sophisticatedly decorated with dragons and landscapes such as rivers and mountains. The young man said the 11 pieces were used in the royal citadel of the Nguyen Dynasty at least over a century ago. The items are named “do su ky kieu,” which means the ceramics that the royal dynasty in Vietnam requested manufacturers in China to make.
After watching the objects carefully to check their authenticity, Yen decided to buy them all at VND38 million (US$1,700) in total.
Then, he invited friends, many of them antique connoisseurs, to examine the dishes and bowls. All agreed that they looked extremely beautiful.
“Honestly, I must say that they were genuine because they looked perfect and very sophisticated.
“But I was wondering why there were so many antiques from the royal dynasty like that,” Nguyen Van Thang, the owner of an antique shop nearby, recalled.
An expert in restoring royal ceramics in Hue was invited to check the batch.
“He didn’t confirm if it was genuine or fake,” Yen said.
“He just watched the items carefully at every corner and said: ‘There is some doubt.’
“I took a closer look at them for a while later and finally came to a conclusion that they were all fakes.”
One day later, the young man from Nam Dinh arrived at the store of Yen and asked if he wanted to buy more. He recommended many more dishes and four big bowls embellished with royal images such as unicorns, lotus flowers, dragons, phoenixes, rivers, and mountains. Yen had secretly reported to police officers about the young man allegedly selling fake antiques.
The young man, Yen, the 11 items, and cash were then sent to a police station in Hue.
A fake ceramic dish antique. Photo: Tuoi Tre
At the police station.
At the Hue police station, the young man presented certificates to prove the origin of the objects. Police temporarily seized the items for further investigation since it is illegal to sell and buy antiques without licenses granted by relevant authorities. A team of investigators was put together to confirm if the batch was genuine or fake.
Nguyen Xuan Hoa, former director of the culture department of Thua Thien-Hue, led the investigative team then.
“Actually, we felt uncertain but the seller had the certificates to prove the origin of his purported antiques,” Hoa said.
“And the pieces looked very beautiful.
“But some experts said they are counterfeits.”
The seller was later released because he had provided enough papers.
Hoa decided to buy the entire batch to display at the Thua Thien-Hue Museum of History and Revolution.
The antique shop owner Yen mentioned several details to prove the items are fake. They include the details at the end of the dragons that are different from those painted under a royal dynasty. Yen added that the enamel of the dishes looks less sharp than that of a genuine antique. And finally, one single authentic antique dish is worth VND1 billion ($44,500), not just tens of millions of dong, Yen asserted. But there has been no official conclusion from professional experts so far on the genuineness of the batch of ceramic dishes and bowls.
Phan Tien Dung, director of the Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Thua Thien-Hue, has said he will arrange for the verification of the authenticity of the items.
Trading antiques in Vietnam – Part 3: Statue made of metal fetching ‘$80mn per kg’ (Tuoi Tre News, 15/09/2015).
Sometimes fake antiques are not only used to cheat the collectors but also to swindle ordinary people.
The dealers could circulate rumors around a fake antique statue that it was made of a kind of ‘supernatural and super valuable’ metal valued at ‘US$80 million per kilogram.’ Many people have fallen victim to such kind of rumor and lost assets and confidence. One case was tried by the People’s Court of Kien Giang Province on July 13, 2015. Three cheaters were sentenced to 17 years, 12 years, and seven years in prison. At least seven people have fallen prey to the ‘supernatural statue’ and lost some VND2 billion ($89,000).
Tra Trung Tin was a dealer of bronze statues and knew about some reactions between metal and chemicals. Able to make a bronze statue change its color, Tin asked two other people to swindle many naïve people. Tin bought a new bronze statue and hired a welder to pour lead into its empty part to make it much heavier. Then, he used chemicals to erase all traces of lead left outside. After that, Tin coated the statue with a thin layer of chemical before applying mercury on it. In that fashion, if the statue is cut with a sharp knife or filed by a metal sharp point, it can return to the original shape in minutes because mercury will cover the cut. That is, the statue can change its color within minutes to hide the true bronze shade exposed after the cut and return with its blackish color blurred by chemicals and mercury. Bringing the statue to many places, Tin boasted that it was made of a kind of ‘supernatural and super valuable’ metal worth ‘$80 million per kilogram.’
Many people checked and felt that the statue was really heavy. They then tried cutting it to expose the glittering gold color inside but within minutes, the cut was shielded and the original color returned. Some rich people put down deposits to buy the statue.
The cheating was stopped by law enforcement agencies and the three cheaters were jailed then.
Sending fake antique to museum.
A fake antique statue in Quang Tri Museum. Photo: Tuoi Tre.
This true story occurred at a museum in the central province of Quang Tri.
A researcher said on the condition of anonymity that he knew the statue of a Hindu god is just a new item and worth VND2.5 million ($110).
The stone statue was abandoned in a garden of his friend years ago but was later listed as an antique and kept at the Quang Tri Museum.
The people who collected and introduced the statue as an antique of the museum were Nguyen Cuong and Trinh Cao Nguyen, who were working at the place, according to former director Mai Truong Manh. They also prepared descriptions for the stone statue 85cm in height and 49cm in width.
According to the documents Tuoi Tre newspaper has accessed, the ‘antique’ was collected on December 25, 2013.
The previous owner of the item named S. said he bought it in the south-central province of Binh Dinh.“I swapped antiques with a friend in Binh Dinh and my friend owed me VND2.5 million,” S. said
“So he paid with this statue.
“Then, an antique dealer came and asked to see the statue. Then he sold it in Quang Tri.”
Manh, former director of the museum, admitted that his place had no funds so he could not send the statue for verification before listing it as an ‘antique.’
Commenting on the fact that the statue is just a new thing, not an antique, Manh confessed, “Maybe my staff members were cheated. This was an accident in their career.”
So many antique collectors have been cheated since they believed in the seeming naivety of the sellers.
Those sellers were actually very wicked and sophisticated enough. They cleverly ‘staged’ certain situations to lead buyers to believe their fake antiques were real and most of the purchasers have fallen prey.
H.T.C., a film director, visited an antique shop on Le Cong Kieu Street, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City in 2000 and was offered an ancient gold statue of the Champa dynasty dating back hundreds of years ago. Believing in his knowledge of antiques, C. decided to buy it because the item looked genuine. He sent it for sale at his own antique shop in Hong Kong. A collector bought it and had its genuineness verified. The result showed that it was just a fake. The collector then returned it to C. The film director brought the gold statue back to the shop on Le Cong Kieu Street but he lost his prestige in this affair for selling a counterfeit anyway.
Some families in the central city of Hue own many antiques they inherited from previous generations, and they are often kept on altars for worship. They are the targets of antique dealers but it is not easy to buy them because the items belong to the whole families. Such items as ceramic dishes and bowls are displayed on altars day after day but family members do not pay much attention to them. And that is where tricks start to be employed. Antique collectors told a family member the old item could be duplicated so that the fake would be put on the altar and the original would be sold to them.
How to duplicate an ancient item is no strange thing to antique collectors.
Nguyen Van Tuan, an architect, agreed to share his “most painful story in life” to Tuoi Tre newspaper as “a lesson of experience” for others to keep away from the tricks of antique dealers.
It was in 2012 when fishermen were reported to have found a crashed ship not very far from shore and fully loaded with antiques, including dishes, bowls, cups, and many other ancient items, in Chau Thuan Bien Hamlet, Binh Chau Commune, Binh Son District, Quang Ngai Province, located in the central region. It was like a fever during the first days when all local fishermen were said to have discovered antiques. Antique dealers jumped on the bandwagon and the news was spread to Tuan, a lover of antiques. Thinking that he could come to buy real ancient pieces, Tuan set off for Quang Ngai. Setting foot in Chau Thuan Bien, he heard from local residents that most there collected some items and kept them in rice jars, piles of old cloths, or under soil to avoid police seizures.
The law says that all ownerless assets belong to the state and those who discover them will be given a small percentage of their value.
Tuan was shown antiques in a dimly lit room. He brought with him about VND1 billion (US$44,500) and spent all of it on the old pieces with complete confidence that they had been picked from the seabed. Going back to Ho Chi Minh City, Tuan showed off the ceramic wares to the amazement of his friends. After that, Tuan asked a professional to assess the antiques. But all of the things were just fake except one jar which was a genuine item, but it was worth just no more than VND10 million ($444).
Buyers who are overseas Vietnamese have fallen into the same trap.
A. was one of the overseas Vietnamese returning to Ho Chi Minh City and managing to fly to Hue to buy an antique item. A. asked for the way to a house on the outskirts of Hue. A senile woman opened the entrance gate for him to enter. Then she opened her cabinet and took out several ceramic antiques for which she demanded over VND100 million ($4,400). After checking the items, A. agreed to buy them immediately. A. asked for help from his friend, an antique connoisseur, and knew that all the items were counterfeit.
An antique dealer added that it is very easy to be cheated when buying antiques if one does not know much about the field.
Antique collector Nguyen Huu Hoang in Hue said, “You can be duped into buying a fake item even when you have checked it carefully before.”
It requires subtlety and knowledge to see the differences between these antiques and the fakes. Tuoi Tre
The price of an antique item can be hefty and the huge sum dazzles many collectors and sellers in Vietnam to the extent that they are willing to use any possible tricks to appropriate the asset.
Sometimes, an antique collector wants to create more value for his item by circulating rumors to make it associated with a historical figure or event to entice buyers.
A woman named Nguyen Thi M. in Nha Trang City, which is the capital of the south-central province of Khanh Hoa, fell victim to an ‘antique plot’ set up by a group of people. Initially, M. was arranged to see a person named T. buy an antique item and sell it soon later, also in her presence, for a profit many times the sum that person had spent purchasing it. After several times of seeing lucrative opportunities come to T., M. was asked to join her in trading antiques for a profit. M. immediately agreed to the suggestion since an antique item may generate a profit worth tens of millions of dong. (VND10 million = US$444). After earning a profit for a few times by contributing her share to buy antiques with T., M. was offered bigger deals. M. was told that the items she had bought and kept in her house were worth billions of dong but they can actually fetch one- or two-tenths of the amount. (VND1 billion = $44,500). The profit M. made before was just like a ‘bait’ and all the sellers and buyers of her antiques were the henchmen of T. and her group.
Antique collector N.V.B. in Ho Chi Minh City is another victim. One day, he received an email from a woman in Hanoi, asking him to buy an antique item dating back to the Nguyen dynasty hundreds of years ago. The item was offered for just VND70 million ($3,100) while it should be over VND100 million in the market. Asking for more pictures of the antique, B. felt he had seen it somewhere.
“After watching the images carefully, I told myself that I had seen this item before,” he said. “Finally, I remember that it is my stuff and I lent it to a friend to organize an antique exhibition in Hue City.”
Antique collector Nguyen Huu Hoang from Hue was once in a similar situation. It turned out that a cheater took pictures of certain antique items displayed in exhibitions and offered them for sale to antique collectors.
Even a film director named H.T.C. in Ho Chi Minh City who is well known as an antique connoisseur was also cheated by a trickster.
In the middle of the 1990s, C. bought a painting by late famous painter Duong Bich Lien and sold it to a collector named Q. in Singapore. Years later, rumor had it that the painting sold to C. was a fake. Q. brought it out for verification and realized that the painting was indeed a counterfeit. Q. kept his verification a secret and returned to Vietnam to find out further facts. It turned out that C. bought the painting from a woman who is the figure in it. She was a well known model before and was given the painting by Lien when he was alive more than a hundred years ago. The family of the model kept the painting as a memento for decades. The painting was only sold after the model passed away. When the painting was hung in the house of the figure, a painter who is a friend of her family came and complimented it many times. He asked to borrow the painting for a while to make a copy of it to hang in his house. Then the friend returned a fake and kept the original. Q., who bought the fake painting was finally able to purchase the genuine one during his trip in Vietnam.
A painting or an image can be duplicated within a day in a shop like this. Photo: Tuoi Tre
Vietnam, dynastie des Lê, 15e-16e siècle,
Fours de Hai Duong, Chu Dau - My Xa,
Grès porcelaineux à décor peint en cobalt sous couverte et émaux polychromes sur couverte,
Musée National de Taipei, Taiwan.
Cet ouvrage fait le bilan des connaissances dans le domaine des arts du Vietnam, depuis les périodes anciennes jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Il réunit des spécialistes vietnamiens, japonais, français, américains, des chercheurs, conservateurs, collectionneurs de différentes disciplines, périodes et domaines de création. Il inclut les cultures matérielles anciennes, les arts visuels et les arts plastiques contemporains.
Avec le soutien de l’Institut français, la région Ile-de-France, la ville de Paris, le conseil scientifique de l’université Paris-Sorbonne et le CREOPS (EA 2565).
En ce qui concerne la céramique vietnamienne :
- Béatrice Wisniewki, « Archéologie du Vietnam : regards sur quinze années de recherches ».
- Bùi Thị Thu Hương, « La céramique de Phùng Nguyên ».
- Lam Thị Mỹ Dung, « Nouvelles recherches sur la céramique du Champa ».
- Louis Allisson Cort, « Unglazed stoneware ceramics in Vietnam ».
- Zhao Bing & Philippe Colomban, « La céramique vietnamienne exhumée sur les sites portuaires de l'océan indien : quels critères d'identification ».
- Nam C. Kim, « Cổ Loa : A Site of Manifold Significance ».
- Bùi Minh Trí « La cramique de Thăng Long de la dynastie des Lê et son rôle dans la vie du Palais impérial de Thăng Long ».
- Tông Trung Tín, « Nouveaux résultats des recherches de l'héritage mondial de Thăng Long - Hanoi ».
- Philippe Truong, « Les collectionneurs de céramiques vietnamiennes ».
Caroline Herbelin, Béatrice Wisniewski et Françoise Dalex (dir.)
Arts du Vietnam Nouvelles approches
Presse Universitaire de Rennes